PhytCore: New Phytolith Database

Grasses Poaceae are human’s most important crop plants and among the most important extant clades of vascular plants. However, the origin and early evolution of grasses are controversial, with estimated ages from molecular dating ranging between 59 and Ma million years ago. Here we report the discovery of basalmost grasses from the late Early Cretaceous Albian, Ma of China based on microfossils silicified epidermal pieces and phytoliths extracted from a special structure along the dentition of a basal hadrosauroid duck-billed dinosaur. Thus, this discovery represents the earliest known grass fossils, and is congruent with previous estimations on grass origin and early evolution calibrated by oldest known fossil grasses, highlighting the role of fossils in molecular dating. This discovery also indicates deep-diverging grasses probably gained broad distribution across both Laurasian and Gondwanan continents during the Barremian Ma. Grasses Poaceae or Gramineae include human’s most important crop plants e. They are among the most important extant clades of vascular plants, inhabit all major landmasses, occupy warm and cold deserts to rainforests and range from herbs to the tree-like bamboos [ 1 ]. However, the origin and early evolution of grasses are uncertain, with estimated ages ranging from 59 to Ma [ 3 , 4 ]. The accuracy of molecular-dating methods depends on both an adequate underlying model and the appropriate implementation of fossil evidence as calibration points [ 5 ]. Currently known earliest grass fossils are rare, and limited to the Maastrichtian 72—66 Ma macrofossils, pollens and phytoliths from India [ 6 ] and the Cenomanian —94 Ma spikelet and phytoliths contained in Myanmar ambers [ 7—9 ].

AMS radiocarbon dating of phytoliths

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Radiocarbon dates were obtained at the Australian. Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation by AMS dating of fossil phytoliths recovered from the samples.

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Banana tree fruit time

Rice Oryza sativa L. Rice farming has provided an important material and cultural basis for the development and prosperity of Chinese civilization. Research into when, where and against what environmental background rice was domesticated has led to considerable discussion over the past decade. The study of phytolith carbon and morphological characteristics, by Prof.

LU Houyuan’s laboratory at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, suggests that rice domestication may have begun at Shangshan in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China during the beginning of the Holocene.

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They may not have had fancy mattresses, but the earliest human ancestors were quite capable of putting together a cosy place to sleep. Newly found remains of human bedding in an ancient archaeological site show just how clever they were at doing so. Not only is this more than , years earlier than the previous record of deliberate plant-based human bedding – the beds were constructed on layers of ash, that would have protected the sleepers from annoying insects.

Obviously after , years, any plant-based material used by humans would be difficult to identify. Organic material degrades over time, which means our record of how early humans used plants is patchy. However, buried deep in the sediments in Border Cave, the archaeologists found the ephemeral remnants of fossilised mats of grass in the living spaces of ancient humans. Wadley et al. These were all towards the rear of the cave – in the warmest and safest locations, and close to hearths, so close that some of the grasses were singed.

Not to worry, though; the team notes that the beds accidentally catching fire was probably infrequent, because most were desiccated, not burnt.

Phytoliths dating

Phytolith radiocarbon dating can be traced back to the s. However, its reliability has recently been called into question. Piperno summarized recent dating evidence, but most phytolith dating results from China were not included in the review because they are written in Chinese. Herein, we summarize and evaluate previous phytolith dating results from China. We also review recent debates on the nature and origin of phytolith-occluded carbon abbreviated as PhytOC , as well as the older age of phytoliths retrieved from modern plants.

We conclude that although PhytOC includes a small amount of old carbon absorbed from the soil, this carbon fraction has not always biased phytolith ages, indicating that in certain situations, phytoliths can be tried as an alternative dating tool in archaeological and paleoecological research when other datable materials are not available.

The International Phytolith Society provides last news about phytoliths, a samples map of Phytolith Carbon dating: the debate is going on!

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Radiocarbon dating of phytolith traces rice domestication to 10,000 years ago

Although there are important landscapes developed on underlying quartzite in Brazil, there is still very little known about the processes and mechanisms involved in their formation. Some recent research has drawn attention to the presence of karstic features associated with silica dissolution in this lithology. The main objective of this research is to analyze the geomorphic processes associated with the material overlying relatively flat surfaces of low inclination that always occur near quartzite outcrops in the study area.

Opal phytoliths are microscopic silica bodies formed by the precipitation of hydrated silica dioxide (SiC^n^O) in, around and between cell walls. They are.

I know this will sound dim, but what exactly is a double-peaked phytolith? It looks like it might be a cell wall type analogous to the papillae that we find in the husks of wheat. In other words, what is the anatomical origin of these phytoliths? I have been wandering around the literature for ages an nobody seems to say! I’m happy to see the considerable subtle element here!. Post a comment.

Tuesday, 16 January Rice husk phytoliths and morphological change. In preparing for a recent Bangkok workshop on the archaeology of rice , I have collected some thoughts of the proposed methodology for tracking rice domestication using rice husk phytoliths the “double peaked” cells from lemma and palea. The proposed method for looking at double peak cells and domestication uses 5 measurement on each phytolith as defined below, left from Zhao et al – note that H is measured twice on each side of the phytolith.

Some of these are then used in squared form. These are combined in discriminant functions that are meant to assign individual phytoliths to like domesticated or wild i. The formulae were developed by taking Bayesian approach to discriminant function analysis. This indicates that this phytolith discrimination method is unlikely to work in India, raising questions about what biogeographic contexts it would be useful in, if at all.

Radiocarbon Dating Phytoliths

News, sample database, publications, researchers… Everything about phytoliths is here! It will still take place in Kiel Germany. We’ll keep you posted.

ISO/IEC accredited Beta Analytic offers radiocarbon dating of phytoliths and other carbon samples. The AMS lab is based in Miami, Florida.

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Banana tree fruit time. They are a favourite of Aphids so examine the undersides of the leaves from time to time and either remove aphids with a hard stream of water or perhaps a soap spray. The best to time plant a new banana tree in Florida is mid to late spring when the weather warms up and afternoon storms become regular. Here we are describing some species of banana trees, which are suitable for planting in the container.

Request PDF | Phytolith Radiocarbon Dating in Archaeological and Paleoecological Research: A Case Study of Phytoliths from Modern Neotropical Plants and.

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